The Robert Louis Stevenson Archive

Comic Books and Graphic Novels

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(a) US comic books
The information in this section has been generously contributed by
William B. Jones, Jnr., (WBJ), author of Classics Illustrated: A Cultural History, with Illustrations, McFarland & Company, 2002 [more information on this title from publisher’s site]. Additional information from Sara Rizzo (2006), ‘“A scroll of lighted pictures”: La traduzione a fumetti di Dr Jekyll e Mr Hyde, 1943-2002’ (Laurea thesis, Università di Milano, 2006)
Links to scanned images of the covers come from Rudy Tambone's
Classics Illustrated site

Classics Illustrated (USA)
Classics Illustrated (Gilberton Co., Inc., USA). Started 1941 as Classic Comics; name of the series changed in 1947 to Classics Illustrated to counter anti-comics bias; the U.S. series was discontinued 1971; 'by the early 1960s, Classics Illustrated was the largest juvenile publication in the world'. In 1997 'Acclaim Comics began reissuing the original series as "Classics Illustrated Study Guides." 'The art has been reduced to digest size and the linework occasionally suffers, turning darker and heavier, but the critical essays by scholars such as Andrew Jay Hoffman are quite good' (WBJ). Acclaim has published recolored CI editions of Treasure Island, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, The Master of Ballantrae, and Kidnapped. Link to Acclaim covers

No. 13. Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (Classic Comics, August 1943).
Line-drawing "horror" cover (Hyde on the rampage) and interior art ('crude') by Arnold L. Hicks. Adaptation by Evelyn Goodman (this 'Hollywood treatment of the story was perhaps the worst in the entire series' - WBJ). Author biography. 56 pages. Four printings. [Opens with a youthful J at a masked ball and the announcement of his future marriage; J decides to reveal his discovery of good-bad dichotomy and a possibility of dividing them; first transformation; Hyde’s trampling of the girl is followed by a chase, arrest, meeting on the steps of the police station with J’s fiancée (who wants to report the disappearance of J), procedure to Soho, entry into a house there (where H quickly agrees to rent a flat), and exit with cheque signed by J; then group goes to the bank (as in S’s text); ending with chase across rooftops, shooting by the police and 8as in the Hollywood tradition) the change back to J in death … Focus of the narrative is on Hyde with prominence give to his large, hairy hands.]

No. 13. Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (Classics Illustrated, June 1949).
Second line-drawing cover by Henry C. Kiefer (Jekyll conjuring Hyde in the lab); original interior art by Arnold L. Hicks. Author biography. 48 pages. Four printings. [The cover shows the ‘good’ doctor at work in the lab, with H as just a face not seen by J in a cloud coming from a test-tube; interior identical with the 1943 version.]

No. 13. Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (Classics Illustrated, October 1953).
Painted cover by unknown artist; interior art by Lou Cameron ('much improved artwork' - WBJ). Adapter unknown ('more faithful script' - WBJ). Author biography. 48 pages. Nine printings.[Divided into the first eight chapters of S’s text, with ch. 9 and 10 incorporated into ch. 7 , ‘The Remarkable Incident of Dr Lanyon’; opens with the making of the will; Enfield’s story (which horrifies Utterson—the story is simplified and made linear); J’s evening conversation with Utterson (ch. 3) is followed by J’s entry into the lab and taking the potion (a sequence familiar from the Hollywood versions: e.g. the changed hand appears first). Unlike the Hollywood versions, J is not motivated by desire to benefit mankind, though he is shown as an idealist, wanting to help the poor. This version less influenced by Hollywood for the story-line, though the Hollywood tradition still influences some of the ‘shots’ and montage.]

No. 31. The Black Arrow (Classic Comics, October 1946).
Line-drawing cover and interior art by Arnold L. Hicks. Adaptation by Ruth Roche and T. Scott. Author biography. 56 pages. One edition.

No. 31. The Black Arrow (Classics Illustrated, September 1948).
Line-drawing cover and interior art by Arnold L. Hicks. Author biography. 48 pages. Five printings.

No. 31. The Black Arrow (Classics Illustrated, March 1956).
Painted cover by unknown artist (same painted cover adapted to Danish edition, early 60s); original interior art by Arnold L. Hicks. Author biography. 48 pages. Eight printings.

No. 46. Kidnapped (Classics Illustrated, April 1948).
Line-drawing cover and interior art by Robert Webb. Adaptation by John O'Rourke. Author biography. 48 pages. Five printings. [Note: No. 46 originally appeared as a 64-page, four-part "Illustrated Classics" newspaper-supplement serial in March and April 1947.]

No. 46. Kidnapped (Classics Illustrated, March 1956).
Painted cover by unknown artist; original interior art by Robert Webb. Author biography. 48 pages. Twelve printings.

No. 64. Treasure Island (Classics Illustrated, October 1949).
Line-drawing cover (confrontation of Jim and Israel Hands) and interior art by Alex A. Blum. Adapter unknown. Author biography. 48 pages. Three printings.

No. 64. Treasure Island (Classics Illustrated, March 1956).
Painted cover (Jim roped to Silver) by George Wilson (original art of this cover, by kind permission of Oystein Abrahamsen; original interior art by Alex A. Blum. Author biography. 48 pages. Eleven printings. Reprinted 2008 (Toronto: Jack Lake Productions) [Scanned reproduction of the original edition with variant of 1956 painted cover by George Wilson (enlarged image of Jim roped to Silver with Hispaniola cut from background); Author biography. Introduction by William B. Jones Jr. 48 pages].

No. 82. The Master of Ballantrae (Classics Illustrated, April 1951).
Painted cover by Alex A. Blum; interior art by Lawrence Dresser. Adaptation by Ken Fitch. Author biography. 48 pages. Two printings. Page 1Page 32. Ken Fitch's original script (private collection): 1, 2

No. 82. The Master of Ballantrae (Classics Illustrated, Fall 1968).
Painted cover by "Siryk" ('dreadful' - WBJ); original interior art by Lawrence Dresser. Author biography. 48 pages. One printing.

No. 94. David Balfour (Classics Illustrated, April 1952).
Painted cover by unknown artist (possibly Alex A. Blum); interior art by Rudolph Palais. Adapter unknown. Author biography. 48 pages. Three printings.

No. 116. The Bottle Imp [and The Beach of Falesa] (Classics Illustrated, February 1954).
Painted cover by unknown artist; interior art by Lou Cameron. Bottle Imp adaptation by Richard E. Davis; Beach of Falesa adaptation by Harry Miller. Author biography. 48 pages. Two printings.

New Classics Illustrated (USA)
New Classics Illustrated (Berkley/First Publishing, USA): attempted revival (1990-91) of Classics Illustrated - but with a more 'graphic novel' format.

No. 8. Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (Berkley/First Publishing, April 1990).
Script and artwork (including cover) by John K. Snyder III ('evokes German expressionist cinema' - WBJ). Lettering by Paul Fricke. Author biography. 48 pages. [The choice of Expressionist style (here and in Hulme-Beaman’s 1930 illustrations of the text, Mamoulians 1931 film and Mattotti’s 2002 comic-book] recalling The Cabinet of Dr Caligari (1919) is interesting, as affinities have been seen between this and Stevenson’s style (cf. J.-P- Naugrette ( ‘On the possibility and plurality of worlds’, 2004) who sees JH as a ‘pre-expressionist text’; see also Rizzo 66-8); divided into 10 chapters with the same titles as S’s text; free and adventurous use of comicbook language; uses blue and red associated with J and H; no clear features given to H; ‘one of the most interesting and successful of comic adaptations’ of JH (Rizzo: 73) ]

No. 17. Treasure Island. (Berkley/First Publishing, January 1991).
Artwork (including cover )and adaptation by Pat Boyette ('less-than-satisfactory version' - WBJ). Author biography. 48 pages.

Reissued Classics Illustrated (Canada/USA)

Classics Illustrated (Jack Lake Productions, Inc., Toronto, under license from First Classics, Inc. Chicago): scanned reproductions of original editions with new introductions by William B. Jones Jr.

No. 64. Treasure Island (Classics Illustrated, May 2008). (enlarged image of Jim roped to Silver with Hispaniola cut from background) by George Wilson; original interior art by Alex A. Blum. Author biography. Introduction by William B. Jones Jr. 48 pages.

3-D Classic Comics (USA)

Published by Interplay, Inc., for Wendy's International, Inc., a fast-food chain. The giveaway series of sixteen-page 3-D comic books included four other titles: 1. Robin Hood; 2. King Arthur; 3. The Call of the Wild; 5. Swiss Family Robinson

No. 4.   Treasure Island (1994). Illustrated by Bill Hughes; Adaptation by Larry Byrd and Bill Hughes; 3-D effects by Larry Byrd; Creative Director, Howard Wexler.

DC Comics World Famous Comics

No. 173Jekyll-Hyde Heroes. (DC Comics World's Finest Comics, February 1968).
“A potion gives Batman and Superman split personalities, Batman turns into his old foe Two-Face while Superman becomes the super-fiend Kralik.”

The Dell Four Color Disney movie editions (USA)
Based on Disney movie versions.

No. 624. Treasure Island (Dell Four Color, April 1955; reprinted in Gold Key Movie Comics, March 1967).
Based on Walt Disney film. Cover photograph of Bobby Driscoll as Jim Hawkins; art by John Usher. 32 pages. Reprinted 1962, 1967.

No. 1101. Robert Louis Stevenson's Kidnapped (Dell Four Color, May
1960; reprinted in Gold Key Movie Comics, June 1963).
Based on Walt Disney film. Cover photographs of James McArthur as David Balfour. 32 pages.

Doc Savage Comics
(Street & Smith Publications)

Nos. 1-4 Treasure Island (1940).

Famous Stories
(Dell Publishing Co., USA). A short-lived, two-title Classic Comics competitor.

No. 1. Treasure Island (Famous Stories/Dell, 1942).
Art by Robert Bugg. 64 pages. The first single-issue comic-book adaptation.

Golden Picture Classics
(Simon and Schuster, USA). This 1950s series combined comics-style illustrations (without speech balloons) and regular abridged texts that retained much of the original language.

CL-1. Treasure Island (Golden Picture Classics, 1956).
Art by Hamilton Greene. Adaptation by Anne Terry White. Author biography. 96 pages.

Golden Stamp Books
(Simon and Schuster, USA). Educational books, each containing 48 pages of text and line drawings and four pages of perforated, illustrated stamps; series covered such subjects as history, literature, and science.

P-32. Treasure Island (Golden Stamp Classic, 1955).
Art by Al Schmidt. Adaptation by Anne Terry White. Author biography. 48 pages.

King Classics
(King Features Syndicate). Printed in Spain for US Distribution.

No. 7. Treasure Island (1977). Cover

No. 19 The Black Arrow. Cover

Marvel Classics Comics
(Marvel, USA). Published in the late 1970s ('in an attempt to fill the gap left by the demise of Classics Illustrated earlier in the decade' - WBJ)

No. 1. Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (Marvel Classics Comics, 1976).
Art by Nestor Redondo. Adaptation by Kin Platt. Author biography. 48 pages. Single printing. Cover
The first transformation is shifted forward (it takes place on the second page); as in the Hollywood tradition, Jekyll also does saintly work in a charity hospital; the film tradition also provides the fight in the music hall and the faint allusions to sexual desire linked to the transformations into Hyde; the narrative is mainly based on the last chapter of Stevenson’s work with first person narration in italics, which then changes to third-person for Hyde’s visit to Lanyon up until the end, with Utterson and Poole breaking down the door and finding Hyde and Jekyll’s statement. The last frame is of Utterson who has just finished reading the statement, saying ‘Poor Jekyll’ and with the faces of Jekyll and Hyde in a cloud behind him.

No. 15. Treasure Island (Marvel Classics Comics, 1976).
Art by Dino Castrillo. Adaptation by Bill Mantlo. Author biography. 48 pages. Single printing. Cover

No. 27. Kidnapped (Marvel Classics Comics, 1977).
Art by Pete Lijauco and Sonny Trinidad. Adaptation by Doug Moench. Author biography. 48 pages. Single printing. Cover

Marvel Illustrated
New York: Marvel Entertainment, Inc (Marvel Illustrated)

Treasure Island. Six weekly issues from 13 June 2007. Published as a single volume by Marvel Comics, 2008. 160 pp.
Roy Thomas (script), Mario Gully (art), cover by Greg Hildebrandt.

Kidnapped. Six weekly issues from 5 November 2008.
Roy Thomas (script), Mario Gully (art)

Marvel Comics Supernatural Thrillers

No. 4 Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde (‘adapted from the chiller by Robert Louis Stevenson') (Marvel Comics Supernatural Thrillers, June 1973)
Ron Goulart (script) and Win Mortimer (art)
Cover shows huge hairy Hyde bursting out from clothes; young, good-looking Jekyll works for a charity hospital (link)

Moby Books Illustrated Classics Editions
(Waldman Publishing Corp., USA). Reminiscent of Big Little Books in their compact dimensions and full-page illustrations facing pages of text, Moby Books presented verbally simplified abridgments of classic fiction and nonfiction. A series of 16mo books with b&w illustrations on every other page.

4505. Kidnapped (Moby Books/I. Waldman & Son, Inc., 1977).
Artist not credited. Adaptation by Deborah Kestel. Author biography. 240 pages.

4510. Treasure Island (Moby Books/I. Waldman & Son, Inc., 1977).
Art by A.J. McAllister. Adaptation by Deidre S. Laiken. Author biography. 240 pages.

4531. The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (Moby Books/Waldman Publishing Corp., 1983).
Art by Brendan Lynch. Adaptation by Mitsu Yamamoto. Author biography. 240 pages.

New Fun
(National Periodical Publications, founded by Major Malcolm Wheeler-Nicholson).

Treasure Island (1935)
Art by Charles Flanders. (The first 'comics book' treatment of Treasure Island)

Pendulum Illustrated Classics
(Pendulum Press Ltd., USA). An attempt ('with two-decades old artwork' - WBJ) to capitalize on appearance of New Classics Illustrated; distributed to the educational market.

Series I, Vol. 2. Treasure Island (Pendulum Illustrated Stories, 1991).
Painted cover by Melissa Benson; interior art by Nardo Cruz (col. in 1991). Author biography. 64 pages.

Series I, Vol. 3. Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (Pendulum Illustrated Stories, 1991).
Painted cover and interior art by Nestor Redondo. Author biography. 64 pages.

Star Presentations

Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde. [see eBay Item #105318163; cover shows a book cover illustrated a large face, Jekyll on left, grimacing Hyde on right in the shade – suspended in front of cover a fleeing young woman in short skirt and fishnet stockings] (Star Presentations)

(b) UK comic-book versions

Classics Illustrated (UK) (1951-1963)

T = type of cover art (l = line drawing; p = painting)




Cover art


Interior art

Pub. hist.

corresp. to US CI




Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde

Henry C. Kiefer


Arnold Hicks

1 issue

13 (1949)

see UK CI 85



Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde



Arnold Hicks

1 issue

cover from US CI 13 (1953)

see UK CI 85



The Black Arrow

Arnold Hicks


Arnold Hicks

2 pr

31 (1948)




The Black Arrow



Arnold Hicks

4 pr

31 (1956)




The Bottle Imp



Lou Cameron

6 pr

116 (1954)





Robert Webb


Robert Webb

2 pr

46 (1948)







Robert Webb

8 pr

46 (1956)




Treasure Island

Alex Blum


Alex Blum

1 pr

64 (1949)




Treasure Island



Alex Blum

7 pr

64 (1956)




The Master of Ballantrae

Alex Blum


Lawrence Dresser

7 pr

82 (1952)




The Master of Ballantrae



Lawrence Dresser

1 pr

82 (1968)




The Master of Ballantrae



Lawrence Dresser

6 pr

82 (1951)




The Master of Ballantrae



Lawrence Dresser


82 (1951)

hc deluxe ed., mid 1950s



Jekyll and Mr. Hyde



Lou Cameron

4 pr

13 (1953)

see No. 13



David Balfour

? Alex Blum


Rudolph Palais

5 pr

94 (1952)



(c) Other comic-book versions, serialized comic-strips and graphic novels

B = Becattini, Alberto (1998). In Pratt, Hugo (1988). Isola del Tesoro. Genova: Le Mani (Comics) [not totally reliable]

(1) Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde

Anon. (1977). O Médico e o Monstro [Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde]. Rio de Janeiro: EBAL (Editora Brasil-América S.A.),1977.
[Based on the translation of Stevenson’s text by Luzia C. Machado da Costa (c. 1975).]

Aporeyma (Carlos Magno Wilson) (script), Flavio Colin (art) (1979). O Médico e o Monstro [Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde]. Curitiba, Brazil: Grafipar (Quadrinhos Eróticos (Eros) n° 9).
[One of five stories in this number of a Brazilian erotic magazine.*]

Francesco Artibani, Alessandro Bottero, Silvano Caroti (script) & Andrea Ferraris (art) (1994). ‘Lo strano caso di Topo Jekyll e Mister Mike’. Topolino 2037 (A & B; 13/12/1994), published in two parts (26 and 31 pp.).
[Parody of the Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde with Pippo (Goofy) and other Disney characters.]

Barreiro, Ricardo (script) & Francisco Solano Lopez (art) (1997). El Instituto II: El burdel del Dr Jeckyll. Buenos Aires: Doedytores. [Dr Jekyll is a character in an erotic metaliterary and metahistorical fantasy. ‘Historieta erótica para adultos, en dónde dos jóvenes hermanas vírgenes se escapan de un instituto en el que estaban internadas y, en su peregrinar hacia Londres se encuentran con el pérfido Dr. Jeckyll, que las recoge, las droga y… Con las actuaciones especiales de Sigmund Freud, Sherlock Holmes y su fiel lacayo Mr. Watson, Louis Stevenson, Arthur Conan Doyle, Albert Einstein, Winston Churchill y el temible Jack el Destripador.’]

Italian translation: Il Postribolo del Terrore (2 vols.). Roma :Coniglio Editore, 2002.

English translation: Young Witches vol 2 London Babylon Seattle: Eros Comix (Fantagraphics), 2000.

[‘The Girls head to Victorian London ‘where they're quickly imprisoned and drugged by Dr. Jekyll and forced to perform in his high-class whorehouse. Just about every famous Victorian character, fictional and historical, makes an appearance: Conan Doyle, Sherlock Holmes, Sigmund Freud, Jack the Ripper (who turns out to be Robert Louis Stevenson), young Albert Einstein and Winston Churchill, and Rose Thatcher (Margaret's mother) Very amusing and totally filthy.’ ]

Battaglia, Dino (1974). ‘Lo strano caso del dottor Jekyll e del Signor Hyde’. Linus 106 (gen. 1974). Repr. in Racconti. Città del Castello (Italy), 2000: Edizioni Di, pp. 28-43.

[Originally published in the comic-magazine Linus. French publication: Le Golem. Saint-Egrève: Editions Mosquito, 2004.  Dino Battaglia (1923-1983) is one of the great Italian comics artists and this black-and-white version of JH is very interesting in the use of shadows and indeterminate images. Battaglia’s typical discontinuioties have been seen as having affinities with S’s text (Rizzo 98). The 15 pages condense ‘The Last Night’ and ‘Henry Jekyll’s Full Statement’ with other elements of the text; clear contrast between interiors and exteriors; the attack on the girl is not clearly shown; transformation placed towards the end; a certain focussing on the hand; ends with Utterson leaving the room and then a closed door with no words (returning to the enigma of the beginning of S’s text). The focus on silent images can be seen as similar to S’s ideas of moments in a story that are remembered as pictures (Rizzo 104)]

Bunker, Max [Luciano Secchi] (script) & Paolo Piffarerio (art) (1993). Lo strano caso del dottor Jeckyll (Alan Ford Special, 4). Milano: Max Bunker Press.

[Alan Ford is one of a group of money-strapped secret agents in New York, of often questionable morality. Created in 1969 and never translated into English, the series is popular in Italy and the former Yugoslavia. This version has meta-artistic structure (the story starts as a play, allowing the stock characters of the series to take part in other stories) and basically follows the Hollywood story, parodying S’s text and the Hollywood adaptations: drawing-room scenes; young and good J who is however tricked by other characters (and is played by a vain ‘star’); laboratory scenes; Jekyll’s lecture on good and evil; similar debate around the dinner table; fiancée and music-hall singer; Jekyll’s friend (not his future father-in-law in this case) who tempts him; fiancée’s absence, on holiday with her father; J’s meeting with dancer who is then visited after transformation into Hyde (found in the films of 1920, 1931 and 1941); focus on the hands after the transformation (H’s left hand coming from floor to table-top; some pages later, J’s right hand in a similar configuration); Hyde starts a fight in the music hall and the singer is fired (as in the filsm of 1931, 1941); Hyde in laboratory hears knocks and transforms into Jekyll and opens the door with feigned innocence; final confrontation of Hyde in Jekyll’s laboratory; Hyde is shot and in death transforms back to Jekyll. The face and gestures of Hyde are copied from the famous double-exposure photograph of Mansfield for the 1888 theatre production (Rizzo 83)]

Bunker, Max [Luciano Secchi] (script) & Magnus (art) (1964-1974). Satanik. Comicbook series (231 issues). Miano: Corno Editore.

[Marny Bannister is a brilliant but facially disfigured scientist who develops a potion that turns her into a beautiful but diabolic femme fatale with a taste for sexy outfits. The potion, self-experimenting scientist and metamorphosis into an evil alter ego that gives expression to repressed instincts all clearly derive from JH, as perhaps does the ‘k’ of the name (other elements com from a more general horror/grand guignol tradition). The first issue (entitled ‘La legge del male’, The Law of Evil) shows the self-experiment and transformation—sequences clearly deriving from JH films (she raises the glass, drinks the potion, the glass falls, focus on the hands ‘dio mio, le mie mani!’, half her face becomes a skull, then she goes to the mirror and and, seeing her face now completely a skull, she utters the horror exclamation: ‘nooooo!’; finally she is ‘reborn’, with torn clothes, as a beautiful but evil girl). No. 185 ‘Le origini di Satanik’ (The Origins of Satanik) explores the frustrations and repressions that lie behind the cruelty of the alter ego (including the oppressive family). ]

Crepax, Guido (presentazione Oreste del Buono) (1987). Dr. Jekyll e Mr. Hyde. Milano: Olympia Press. [divided into eight chapters; follows the original narrative closely, with the addition of occasional scenes to illustrate Hyde's sexual vices, these “are most often voyeuristic, reflecting Jekyll’s basically passive sexuality, but they can on occasion turn to cruelly sadistic games… It is the combination of these two elements, the passive and the aggressive, in the human psyche that conditions our total sexual being - a classic Freudian view”]. English ed. ***: Catalan (1990)

Dorfman, Leo (script) & Kurt Schaffenburger (art) (1962). Superman’s Girl Friend Lois Lane 36(2) (October 1962): ‘The Madam Jekyll of Metropolis’. [The action of a cyclotron’s radiations on a piece of Red Kryptonite that Lois is holding causes her to turn into a destructive, hairy woman under the influence of the full moon…]

Fischer, Jorge (script), Franco de Rosa (art) (1990). O Médico é um Monstro. São Paulo: Nova Sampa (Arte Erótica n° 3).
[One of fourteen stories in this 132-page erotic comic-book.]

Jean-Luc Fromental (coordonné par ) (1994). ‘R.L. Stevenson Étonnant Voyageur’. A Suivre 196 (mai 1994) : 31-42.

[Comic-book magazine, with articles by Michel Le Bris, Pierre Pelot, Jacques Meunier and graphic contribitions from Jean-Luc Fromental, Miles Hyman, Hervé Prudon, Fraçois Boucq, Lorenzo Mattiotti, Nicolas Wintz, Pierre Pelot, Moebius.]

García, Santiago (script), Javier Olivares (art) (2009). El extraño caso del Doctor Jekyll y Mister Hyde. Madrid: Ediciones SM. Portuguese edition, O Estranho Caso de Doutor Jekyll e Mister Hyde (São Paulo: Edições SM, 2011).
[Starts with a dream sequence of three pages to set the scene; refers to the 1931 Mamoulian and 1941 Fleming films. The art is characterized by Expressionistic drawings and doubled and reflecting elements, together with bold impaginations and a series of double page spreads at the end.]

Howard, Cal (script); Anibal Uzál, Hector Adolfo de Urtiága (art) (1983). ‘Dr. Jekyll And Mr. Hydrangea’. Das große Goofy-Album Nr. 18: ‘Goofy als Dr. Jekyll’. Stuttgart: Ehapa 1983. Published in Brazil in 1990 as ‘Pateta é... Dr. Jekyll’. Super Picsou Géant n.32.

IF staff (script) & Motta, Alberico (art) (1984). ‘Lo strano caso del Dottor Paper e di Mister Paperyde’. Almanacco Topolino No. 325 (1 gen. 1984). Reprinted in Paperino mese/Paperino No. 105 (1989), 28 pp. Translated as The Strange Case of Dr Donald and Mr Mike in a weekly series (Disney Literature Classics) offered to readers of The Irish Independent from December 2009.

[Parody of the Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde with Disney cartoon characters. Dr Paper (Donald Duck) makes up a potion against stinginess (the poles of the original struggle are turned into meannness against generosity) but, failing to make his uncle Scrooge McDuck drink it, he tests it on himself. His new personality is good and generous. In the end the altruistic personality gets stronger and he starts spending Scrooge McDuck’s money during his uncle’s absence. When the latter returns, Paper is forced to flee, leaving his diary and the potion to Grandma Duck. This story, set in the 19th century, is contained in a contemporary frame: the present Scrooge Duck inherits a villa from his ancestors in London and Donald Duck cleaning up the place finds Dr Paper’s diary and reads it. The comic ends with Scrooge McDuck’s determination to turn that diary into a winning film ‘Lo Strano caso del Dottor Paper and Mister Paperyde’. ]

Jones, Steve (script); Seppo Makinen (art) (1998). Sherlock Holmes: Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Holmes. Westland, MI: Tome Press/Caliber
[An ‘alternative universe’ steampunk narrative. (not the same story as the novel with the same title by Loren D. Estleman). B&w comic.]

Alan Grant (script) & Cam Kennedy (art) (2008). Strange Case Of Dr Jekyll And Mr Hyde - the Graphic Novel. New Lanark: Waverley Books. 9781902407449. 21 Feb. 2008.

Also translated into Scots by James Spence as Unco Case O’ Dr Jekyll An’ Mr Hyde - the Graphic Novel. New Lanark: Waverley Books, 2008 (9781902407593). Translated into Gaelic by Iain MacDhòmhnaill as Gnothach Annasach An Dr Jekyll is Mhgr Hyde - the Graphic Novel.  New Lanark: Waverley Books, 2008 (9781902407586). Also a ‘modern text’ (i.e. simplified) version, Edinburgh: Barrinton Stoke, 2008. (9781842995686).

[closely follows the original text, adapting Stevenson’s words directly in a faithful narration of the 10 chapters – allowing the reader to follow the investigation-plot Grant and Kennedy show their awareness of the thematic contrast between light and dark and associated inside and outside spaces (and of the inversion of this association in Stevenson’s text towards the end). The strong yellow colour for lamps and fire takes on a thematic meaning. In addition, the authors have also tried to suggest a kind of pervasive doubling in the street lamps or lighted windows that usually appear in pairs.

The adaptation shows some influence from the cinema tradition of JH, which has developed in some ways independently of Stevenson’s text: i) Jekyll is youngish, surely not 50 years old; ii) Hyde is a hairy monster, dressed with top hat, stick and cloak not mentioned in the original text but an icon of all adaptations; iv) Jekyll looks after poor patients; v)  Jekyll’s pleasures are sexual. (Sara Rizzo)
Review of Scots version: Irene Broon (2008). Scots Tung Wittins Nr 174 (Mey 2008). ]

Lee, Stan (script), Jack Kirby (art) (1962). ‘The Coming of Hulk’. The Incredible Hulk 1. Marvel Comics.

[The Incredible Hulk magazine only lasted six issues (May 1962 – March 1963), following which The Incredible Hulk was a guest star in other Marvel Comics. The Incredible Hulk magazine was restarted in 1968 and continues to the present day. The character also appears in ‘The Incredible Hulk’ TV series (1978-82) and in the film Hulk, directed by Ang Lee (2003).

Hulk is inspired by Jekyll and Hyde fused with the tender naivity of the Creature of Frankenstein. The agent of transformation is radiation, a feature typical of Marvel super-hero stories of the 1960s. At the same time, however, he clearly also derives from more negative monsters launched by Marvel in the early 60s (in particular, in his huge size and destructive energy).

There are many analogies with Stevenson’s JH (and its film versions): (i) like Jekyll, Dr Bruce Banner is a brilliant scientist who transforms into a creature uncontrolled by civilized restraints; (ii) exposure to gamma rays liberates Banner’s repressed side, just as the potion liberates Hyde from Jekyll (though the exposure is accidental, not planned, in the case of Banner); (iii) the metamorphosis subsequently takes place spontaneously, as happens to Jekyll; (iv) the violence in Hulk is attributed to an unresolved conflict between Banner and his father (cf.’The Psychoanalysis of Hulk’, The Incedible Hulk, 1991, Peter David (script), Dale Keown (art)) and there are indications of this in the story of Jekyll too (cf Hyde destroying the portrait of Jekyll’s father), (v) Banner’s fiancée is Betty, daughter of General Ross, with whom Banner is not in complete agreement, a link with the JH tradition in derivative works (cf. Gen. Carew in the 1887 Sullivan play and Brig. Gen. Carew in the 1931 Mamoulian film); (vi) while Banner has suicidal instincts, Hulk wants to survive at any cost, like Hyde who represents an instinctive force of self-preservation (‘his love of life is wonderful’); (vi) after transformation, The Hulk wears the remnants of Banner’s clothes just as Hyde wears Jekyll’s clothes after unplanned transformations and in both cases the clothes are of inappropriate size (The Hulk’s too small, Hyde’s too big).  (Sara Rizzo)]

Lee, Stan (script), Don Heck (art) (1963). ‘The Mysterious Mister Hyde’. Journey into Mystery 99 (Dec. 1963).

[Dr. Calvin Zabo, brilliant scientist but resentful and immoral. Fascinated by Stevenson’s Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde he recreates Jekyll’s potion which has hormone-stimulating properties that turns him into a huge Hulk-like creature with superhuman strength. Mister Hyde then appears as antagonist in various Marvel Comic titles until Ghost Rider Vol.2 #4 (1990). The hormone transformation probably reflects current concerns since anabolic steroids were first produced in 1958.]

Juliette Lévéjac (script and art) (2013). Voyage avec un âne dans les Cévennes. Sayat, F: De Borée.
[A spirited ligne claire comic-book adaptation in French with the landscapes based on on-the-spot sketches and photographs.]

Andrzej Klimowski and Danusia Schejbal (script & art) (2009). Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde. A Graphic Novel. London: Self Made Hero (Eye Classics).
[The two Anglo-Polish artists collaborated on both the adaptation and the artwork, which is in a notable naïf/ expressionistic style. Most pages are divided into two panels, thus increasing the effect of the single- and double-page panels, increasing in frequency towards the end and marking important turning points. The simple sequential style makes the often wordless panels take on the force of independent pictures or illustrations, forcing the eye to linger on their enigmatic or disturbing content. May of the key narrative structures of the text are illustrated and, though the language is an adaptation of Stevenson’s with no attempt to quote the original word-for-word, the sequential art in itself makes an interesting interpretation of the original story. ]

Lefort, Luc (adapt. de); Ludovic Debeurme (ill.) (2001). L'Etrange cas du Dr Jekyll et de M. Hyde. Paris: Albums Nathan. ISBN: 209210097-1 [“A free adaptation of the text, with superb, eerie illustrations” (Jean-Pierre Naugrette). The text is a rewriting, not without art, that smoothes out the roughness of Stevenson’s text and makes it more of a classic detective story, underlining the suspense and adding those small details, observations of behaviour and touches of ‘atmosphere’ that contribute to the attractions of the genre.]

Mattotti, Lorenzo (art);  Jerry Kramsky (script) (2002). Dr Jekyll et Mr Hyde. Paris : Casterman. ISBN 2203389885. Torino: Einaudi. Amsterdam: Oog & Blik. Hamburg: Carlsen Verlag; New York (2003): NBM.
[a free reworking of the story (starting with the trampling episode, it then moves to ‘the last night’ and then basically Jekyll’s ‘full statement’),set in the 1920s-30s and in a style reminiscent of Grosz with an influence of De Chirico for the urban landscape (Rizzo 108), with additional acts of sadism – but all very stylised and suggested rather than shown. The colours and tones have an almost musical sequencing about them. One interesting sequence on p. 10-11 is where Utterson, seated and talking with Poole, becomes Jekyll and begins the main ‘full statement’ (‘The Last Night’ chapter acts as a frame for ‘Dr Jekyll’s Full Statement’). The (originally Italian) text makes much use of Stevenson’s words, together with additional words and episodes, which however are all interesting re-elaborations and interpretations. There are female characters, but no fiancée or postponed marriage (as in Sullivan and various film versions); Jekyll is a rather ill-looking man of late middle age (often associated with a pale green colour). Focalization on both the hand and the eye as disturbing parts of the body. As in the film versions, J expounds his theories in a conversation (here, in a night club, with Lanyon). Jekyll tests the potion on animals first (as in the 1941 film) and injects the potion (as in the 1953 film). When J has decided to abandon H, he gives a party and speaks to a diplomat who seems to be a Nazi supporter (he suggests that J should help to improve the race); the diplomat’s wife tempts J, and at their meeting a transformed H savagely murders her. H appeals to Lanyon and it is through innocent memories that he returns momentarily to J. The final image before a brief return to the framing narrative is of paper and pen but no trace of J.]

Moore, Alan (script); Kevin O'Neill (art) (2000, book form; 6-part magazine publication in 1999). The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen. New York/London: DC Comics/Titan Books. [graphic novel; the mysterious forces of Fu Manchu threaten the British Empire - the authorities enlist a new cadre of agents drawn from classic literature of the time: Captain Nemo, Allan Quatermain, Dr Henry Jekyll and Edward Hyde, and the Invisible Man…]

Moore, Alan (script); Kevin O'Neill (art) (2003; 6-part magazine publication 2002-3 ). The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen, vol 2. La Jolla, CA: America’s Best Comics.
[The group of agents drawn from classic Victorian literature from Vol 1 is joined by Dr Moreau and have to defeat a War of the Worlds-style invasion from Mars. Hyde (of towering, Hulk-like proportions, now independent of Jekyll) has a scene of tender attraction to Mina Harker (reminiscent of similar scenes with Frankenstein’s monster or King Kong in the classic films);  although impatiently violent he dies trying to save England. At one point he expresses his opinion of Jekyll. An example of ‘Steampunk’ (narratives of dystopias and disasters set in Wells-Verne era, an offshoot of Cyberpunk).]

Mould, Chris (Illustrator) (2000). Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde. Oxford University Press (0192724096) [disappointing treatment]

Novellen Comic. ‘Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde’. NOCO Novellen-Comic Nr 2. Hamburg: Terrapex, 1973.

Poplum, Tom (script); Simon Gane & Michael Slack (art) (2004). ‘The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde’. In Tom Poplum (ed.) (2004). Graphic Classics: Robert Louis Stevenson. Mount Horeb, WI: Eureka Productions (Graphic Classics 9). [Simon Gane gives a comix treatment to the first part, Michael Slack provides accompanying illustrations to Jekyll’s ‘Statement’). See below, under ‘3) Others’, for full contents.]

Rigamonti, Davide (script), Manuela Rivolta (translation), Massimo Frattino (art) (2007). Lo Strano caso del Dottor Jekyll & Mister Hyde. Milano: Scuola del Fumetto. 88-7855-099-X.

[A translation of JH, half of which is occupied by comicbook inserts. The script finds new ways of representing and interpreting the narrative: mixing times of narrating and time of narrative (p. 8), combining Utterson’s wandering thoughts while Lanyon offers him some wine (23), interesting subjective ‘shots’ of Utterson waking to find his butler and the police after the Carew murder (47), and an interpretative picture of Utterson looking at himself in perturbation in the mirror (47). The drawing is weaker but one memorable image is of Utterson standing before the the looming black façade of Lanyon’s house. The influence of the film tradition can be seen in the drawings including rats but is otherwise absent, and the important role given to Utterson shows an intelligent attempt to interpret the original text.]

Sclavi, Tiziano (script) & Corrado Roi (art) (1992). 'Jekyll!'. Dylan Dog. Indagatore dell'incubo 33 [Milano: Bonelli] (Aprile 1992). [A free adaptation with many intertextual references (e.g. Poe’s Raven and the text of his poem are brought in as a parallel theme ) and metatextual references to Stevenson’s JH (Rizzo 91). Opening in 1988, psychology professor, Henry Jekyll, seems to be associated with murderous raven and a Hyde-figure (with stick) who attacks pedestrians in lonely night streets (the killing of the tramp is equivalent to the trampling of the girl); ironic and detached horror-investigator Thomas Dylan finally discovers that it is HJ's partner, Lesley, who has doubled as Fay (with whom Dylan himself has had a relationship), who (for complicated reasons) has committed all the crimes. Disturbing part of the body not the hand (as in the Hollywood tradition) but the eye (also contained in S’s text) (Rizzo 90-1). After taking the potion, J’s walk through the rooms of his house in this version becomes two pages in which the corridors of the house become the interstices of the brain (Rizzo 91-2). The apperance of Hyde is a ‘quotation’ from the 1974 comicbook version by Battaglia (d. 1983) (Rizzo 92-3)]

Sclavi, Tiziano (script) & Giampiero Casertano (art) (1996) ‘La metà oscura’ [the dark half]. Dylan Dog . Indagatore dell’incubo 133 [Milano: Bonelli] (Feb. 1996).
[Though the title recalls Stephen King’s novel (The Dark Half, 1989) which turns around a writer’s double persona, the cover, by Stano, is a clear reference to those stereotyped features from film adaptations of JH: the lab desk with bubbling retorts, the broken glass on the floor with potion and a hairy Hyde in clothes that don’t fit, corded hands holding a stick. Sclavi intertwines the detection plot with some echoes from King’s novel and a free interpretation of JH. At the end Dylan Dog, the horror investigator, works out that behind a series of mysterious deaths there is a doctor who by hypnotizing his clients frees their lower, instinctive side. (the ‘Dark Halves’ have all a different animal appearance). The doctor, confessing his guilt, declares that he did it with a good intent, to cure his clients by freeing them from inner struggles. At the same time his hypocrisy comes out as he expresses his sense of scientific triumph and his indifference to the fate of his patients. Yet, the doctor explains that after a previous investigation into inner and multiform side of human beings (DD 61), he reached a point of no return, like J. The failure of his experiment comes from not having onsidered “the old myth of Dr Jekyll & Mr Hyde, that violence is horrible but also fascinating”.
Though this comic-book is not faithful to the text that inspired it (or to one of the texts – Sclavi (appreciated by Umberto Eco) always works in complex intertextual space), it shows how strong is the myth grown that has around it and how it its elements are constantly being re-used. (Sara Rizzo)]

Wood, Wallace (art), Ray Zone (3-D adaptation) (1987). ‘Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde’. The 3-D Zone No. 1. Los Angeles: 3-D Zone (also found as New Hampshire: Renegate Press) 1987.
[Interesting 3-D version, comes with 3-D ‘glasses’. A reprint of Wallace Wood’s art from 1950. Wallace Wood is one of the classic American comic book artists of the 1950s and 60s.]

(2) Treasure Island

Anon. (1984). Treasure Island. Geneva/New York: Edito-Service/Heron Books (Classics and Comics Series).

[combination of comicbook and storybook form with 30 pages of color comics. Edito-Service also published am edition in French (translation by Yvette Métral)]

Battaglia, Dino (art) (1954). Isola del tesoro. ***: Edizioni Audace (Capolavori, 3) ['il grande Dino Battaglia', B]

Bellomia, Saro (art) & E. Fornasari (script) (1947). Isola del Tesoro. In Il Giornalino.

Bertho, Pascal (script) et Tim McBurnie (art) (2007). Sept Pirates. Paris : Delcourt 
[Some years have passed, the treasure has mostly been spent and the ‘gentlemen’ are not doing particularly well; Jim and the others are given the offer (made anonymously through a lawyer) to search for the treasure still remaining on the island. Condemned in no uncertain terms (‘flop complet… totalement vide et d’une banalité effarante’) by Olivier Wurlod on Univers BD]

Bottaro, Luciano & Carlo Chendi (script) & L. Bottaro (art) (1959). ‘Paperino e l’isola del tesoro’. Topolino No. 216, 217 e 218 (10, 25 agosto e 10 settembre 1959). Translated as Donald Duck on Treasure Island in a weekly series (Disney Literature Classics) and offered to readers of The Irish Independent from December 2009.

[Parody of Treasure Island with Disney cartoon characters from Duckburg published in the Italian comic Topolino (=‘Mickey Mouse’), a periodical dating from 1932 producing its own stories, including a series of such parodies. The three Ducklings are playing at pirates in the bathroom till the water reaches Donald downstairs. He gets furious and forbids them to read such harmful stuff as adventure novels. At bedtime (when we see an example of another popular genre on the bed: a comic book), the three brothers complain about their uncle’s prohibition; at this point ‘an authentic ghost of an authentic pirate’ appears and makes them fall asleep and re-awake the following morning  in the 17th century in his bedroom where there’s a trunk with the treasure map inside. So suddenly three generations (like RLS, his father and Lloyd?) find themselves involved in the adventure: Uncle Scrooge as Long John Silver, captain of the pirates (Beagle Boys); Donald Duck and Ducklings Huey, Dewey and Louie as a sort of diffused Jim Hawkins. (Confirming RLS’s brief fable ‘The Tadpole and the Frog’ about the hypocrisy of the older generation towards the younger, Donald finally admits he read adventure books too).

In this parody, the pirates steal the map from a sleep-walking Donald Duck and then load him and his nepews on the vessel. There’s no Captain Smollett or Dr Trelawnley but to make the journey more complex a gigant octopus tries to sink the ship and a sea dragoon swallows Scrooge and Donald Duck (echoes of Verne’s Vingt mille lieues sous les mers and Collodi’s Pinocchio).]

As soon as the treasure has been found, the pirates decide to betray Silver and to take the gold for themselves, and eventually there are two battling coalitions: the pirates (who have captured Huey, Dewey and Louie) against Silver, Donald Duck and a tripled Ben Gunn with a ship. There are no winners because both of the boats sink and with them the treasure. The adventure is over, and the three duck generations return home to blame the ghost for involving them in such a dangerous experience. (Sara Rizzo)]

Buffolente, Lina (art) & Antonio Mancuso (script) (1946). Isola del Tesoro. In Albi della Ventura No. 31-33.

Chauvel, David (script) & Fred Simon (art) (2007-). L’île au trésor. Paris: Delcourt (Ex-Libris). Vo. 1 2007, vol. 2 2008, vol. 3 ***.

[Delcourt’s Ex-Libris series (in the tradition of Classics Illustrated) attempts faithful translations of literary classics into ‘BD’ form. Images:]

Corteggiani (trad. de l'anglais et adapt.), Faure (ill.). L'Ile au trésor. Paris: Dargaud, 1991 ill. en coul. 2-205-04038-3. [Bandes dessinées]

De la Fuente, Chiqui (1964). La Isla del tesoro. In Chío [Also reported: a previous printing of 1960; De la Fuente also drew another Treasure island: see Soria (1984)] Madrid: Chio. [also recorded as 1964; repub. Larousse-Itaca, 1984]

DeLay, Harold (art). Treasure Island (1941-2). [serialized version published in Target Comics (Funnies, Inc.)]

Doughty, C[ecil] L[angley] (art) (1977) ʻTreasure Islandʼ. Look and Learn [London: Fleetwood Publications], No. 812– .
[C.L. Doughty (1913-85) drew historical strips for British educational weekly Look and Learn during its whole period of publication 1962-82. The format is a grid of drawings with short printed texts.]

Dorison, Xavier (script) & Mathieu Lauffray (art) (2007). Long John Silver. Paris: Dargaud.
[The first of four volumes. Silver (apparently the only character from Stevenson’s story) is a picaresque hero in a new search for treasure. This first volume has been much praised n BD sites.]

Faorzi, Fiorenzo (art) (1949). Isola del tesoro. Florence: Corrado Tedeschi. [Faorzi described as 'pittore e illustratore' by B]

Hamilton, Tim (script & art) (2005). Robert Louis Stevenson's Treasure Island. The Graphic Novel. Harmondsworth/New York: Penguin (Puffin Graphics). 176p. illus. c2005. 0-1424-0470-5.
[B&w realistic artwork, making great use of light and shadow. ‘The section entitled The Making of Robert Louis Stevenson's Treasure Island includes concept sketches, photos of Hamilton's friends that he used as models for his characters, and information on his artistic techniques. Readers will also learn that the author approaches storytelling in a cinematic way, which may explain why there are so many images of characters' faces hidden dramatically in shadows.’ (School Library Journal quoted on]

Jeva, Lino (art) (1959). L'isola del tesoro. ***: Editrice Il Ponte (Collana Birillo)

"Katzenjammer Kids" - Long John Silver and his pirates made many appearances in both of the rival Katzenjammer Kids cartoon strips in the 1920s (when the kids and family were on a tropical island).

Fiona Macdonald (script) & Penko Gelev (art) (2006). Treasure Island. Hauppauge, NY: Barron’s Educational Series/The Salariya Book Company (Graphic Classics). 48 pp.

[A children’s version (simple language, glossses of difficult words) with small coloured pictures of various sizes, a sentence or two of text below each and speech-bubbles with typographic captions (not hand-lettered). The result is an awkward and uninspiring combination of illustrated simplified version and comic-book.]

Mantelli, Andrea (sceneggiatura) & Alfio Buscaglia (art) (1998). Robert Louis Stevenson: Caccia all'oro (da L'isola del tesoro) e altri racconti. Milano: Xenia [comic-book version followed by text of (i) Treasure Island ch. 31-33; (ii) The Master of Ballantrae ch. 11-12; (iii) 'The Story of Kelela' (from In the South Seas ch. 10 'A Portrait and a Story']

Natoli, Domenico (art) (1953). L'isola del Tesoro. Milano: Magnesia S. Pellegrino (Granelli S.p.A.) ('Libri Celebri ridotti e illustrati, N. 6)

Morse, N. Brewster (art), Major Malcolm Wheeler-Nicholson (script) (1925). Treasure Island. [the first comics treatment of Treasure Island; daily newspaper serial]

Nizzi, Claudio (script) & Carlo Boscarato (art) (1986). L'isola del tesoro. Milano: Epipress. Also published 1991 as L'isola del tesoro a fumetti (Cinizello Balsamo: Edizioni paoline, "Meraviglie della letteratura a fumetti" n. 13, ); 1996, 2005 as supplement to Il giornalino (Alba: Periodici San Paolo).

Ozamu Tezuka (1947). Shin Takara Shima (New Treasure Island). [With this album Osamu revolutionized Japanese comicbook technique and laid the basis for the dynamic and fluid modern manga; there is also a 1965 TV animation called Shin Takara Shima]

Pratt, Hugo (art) & Mino Milani (script) (1965-6). L'isola del tesoro. Published in Corriere dei piccoli from 1965 (No. 41) to 1966 (No. 6). Reprinted Milano: Fabbri, 1980;  Milano: Rizzoli, 1988; (with additional material by Alberto Becattini) Genova: Le Mani (Comics)/Microart's Edizioni, 1998 [the 1998 edition attributes the script to Piero Selva, but it is attributed to Mino Milani by various internet sites:,,]

Soria, Carlos R. (script) & Chiqui De la Fuente (art) (1984). L'île au trésor. Paris: Larousse.. [48 pp]

Woehrel, Jean-Marie (script), Christophe Lemoine (art) (2008). L’île au trésor. Paris : Adonis (Romans de toujours).
[France and Belgium are the home of the modern comic-book/graphic novel and here is a new adaptation of Treasure Island after the first volume of a three-volume version (Chauvel/Simon for Delcourt) and the first of four volumes devoted to further picaresque adventures of Long John Silver (Dorison/ Lauffray for Dargaud), both published in 2007. The 46-page narrative is followed by pages on author and his work, historical background etc. and a CD with the text and a reading of the text.l

Vastra, Sébastien (script and art). Jim Hawkins. Tome 1: Le Testament de Flint (Roubaix, F: Ankama).
[The first volume follows Stevenson’s text quite closely, through the characters are anthropomorphic animals. A pleasure for the eye: Atmospheric watercolour washes and adventurous impagination]

Vidal Sales, José Antonio (script), Alfonso Cerón Núñez (art) (1970). ‘La isla del Tesoro’ [Treasure Island]. Joyas Literarias Juveniles 2. (Barcelona: Editorial Bruguera). Reprinted in : R. L. Stevenson. La isla del Tesoro. Barcelona: Planeta DeAgostini (Joyas Literaria juveniles), 2009
Cover by Antonio Bernal Romero.

Zidarov, Lyuben [b. 1923] (2003). [Treasure Island]. Sofia: VedArt  Gallery

[Zidarov’s illustrations for a Bulgarian translation of Treasure Island (Sofia: Narodna Mladezh, 1977) had previously won a national illustrators’ prize.]

(3) Others

Cuevas, Alberto (script), Cándido Ruiz Pueyo (art). ‘La isla de la aventura’ [The Ebb-Tide]. Joyas Literarias Juveniles 39. (Barcelona: Editorial Bruguera). Reprinted in : R. L. Stevenson. La isla del Tesoro. Barcelona: Planeta DeAgostini (Joyas Literaria juveniles), 2009
Cover by Antonio Bernal Romero.
[A crude travesty, making The Ebb-Tide into an adventure story in which, among other things, ‘Capitan Brown’ (Davis) is attacked by a giant octopus]

Cussó Giral, Miguel (script), José Ariza Torres (art) (1972). ‘La fleche negra’ [The Black Arrow]. Joyas Literarias Juveniles 48. (Barcelona: Editorial Bruguera). Reprinted in : R. L. Stevenson. La isla del Tesoro. Barcelona: Planeta DeAgostini (Joyas Literaria juveniles), 2009.
Cover by Antonio Bernal Romero

Duval,Yves (script) & Jacques Laudy (art) [1907-1993] (1952-3). ‘David Balfour’. Le Journal de Tintin 1952/24-1953/7 (belgium ed.), 1952/196-1953/232 (French edition).Reprinted **** : Distri BD, 1980 ; **** : Paul Ryperman, 1980.

Ferrarini, Paola (script) & Gianni De Luca [1927-1991] (art) (1988). La freccia nera [The Black Arrow]. In Il giornalino. Republished Alba : Periodici San Paolo, 1994. Also Milano: Periodici San Paolo (this version in colour, others not seen)

Forina, Danilo (script), Dino Battaglia (art) (1963). La Freccia nera [The Black Arrow]. Corrierino dei piccoli 32-51. Republished in Hugo Pratt et al. (prefazione Claudio Bertieri) (1982). I crociati. Milano: Il gatto e la volpe edizioni.

Fuente, Ramon de la (art) (1977). La freccia nera [The Black Arrow]. Milano: AMZ (I classici a fumetti). 63 pp.

Grant, Alan (script) & Cam Kennedy (art) (2007). Robert Louis Stevenson’s Kidnapped –The Graphic Novel. New Lanark: Waverley Books.

[Some fine images and a rapid narrative style; David, however, has the build of Arnold Schwarzeneger and looks in his twenties, and the cultural differences between Highlands and Lowlands is more or less eliminated. Also translated into Scots by Matthew Fitt & James Robertson as Robert Louis Stevenson’s Kidnappit. Edinburgh: Itchy Coo/Black and White Publishing, 2007. Translated into Gaelic by Ian MacDonald as Fo bhruid,  New Lanark: Waverley Books, 2007. Also a ‘modern text’ (i.e. simplified) version, Edinburgh: Barrinton Stoke, 2007 (with computer text substituting lettering). An Americanized version will be published by Tundra of Toronto in the fall of 2007. See also: Grant, Alan (2008). ‘Zombie Writer Guts Kidnapped’. Journal of Stevenson Studies 5: 26-30. This article explains how Grant started and developed the project to write the script, seeing it in terms of ‘two men becoming friends while having a bonnie adventure’. ]

Hippolyte [Frank Meynet];  Michel Le Bris (Introduction) (2006, 2007). Le Maître de Ballantraë. Paris: Denoël. Tome1, 2006; Tome 2, 2007.

[A full adaptation that brings our the quality of classic tragedy of the narrative; watercolours, with some atmospheric sequences in grisaille and monochrome.;]

Le Faou, [Cyrille] [1969 - ] (script & art), inspiré de Robert-Louis Stevenson. (2005). Voyage avec un âne dans les Cévennes. Ajaccio: Editions Alain Piazzola. 2-915410-24-0.

[Comic-book version in ligne-claire style with interesting use of the local Occitan dialect (translated into French in footnotes). ]

Lothian, Jack (script), Alan Brown (art) (2014). Heather Ale. Williams Bros. Brewing Co for distribution at the 2014 ‘Glasgow Comic Con’.
[Stevenson’s poem tells the legendary story of how the King of Scotland defeats the Picts and demands the secret of heather ale from the last two survivors, who trick him (at the cost of their own lives) and the secret is lost. The comic book elaborates on the story, in particular praising the qualities of the ale—unsurprising, as it is published by the firm that makes Frioch Heather Ale.]

Mattotti, Lorenzo (ill.) (1992). La pavillon sur les dunes. Paris: Vertige Graphic. 2-908981-04-1.

Mattotti, Lorenzo (ill. 1995). Il padiglione sulle dune, tr. di Nini Agosti Castellani. Milano: Lizard/"Nuages". 88 p., Lit. 38000. ISBN: 88-86456-06-9. [This is really an artistically-illustrated edition of the text; see artworks page]

Novellen-Comic. ‘Der Flaschenteufel’ [The Bottle Imp]. NOCO Novellen-Comic Nr 1. Hamburg: Terrapex, 1972.

Novellen-Comic. ‘Der Leicheräuber’ [The Body Snatcher]. NOCO Novellen-Comic Nr 3. Hamburg: Terrapex, 1973.

Poplum, Tom (ed.), and various other scriptwriters and illustrators (2004). Graphic Classics: Robert Louis Stevenson. Mount Horeb, WI: Eureka Productions (Graphic Classics 9). [See above for ‘The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde’; ‘The Bottle Imp’ (illustrated by Lance Tooks and wittily updated to the present-day Pacific; see additional note below), ‘The Suicide Club’ (atmospherically illustrated by Pedro Lopez, script by Tom Poplum), ‘The Nixie’ (ill. Socar Myles), plus Verses and Fables (by various illustrators), with a comics biography of Robert Louis Stevenson by Mort Castle and Chad Carpenter. Of particular interest is Robert Crumb’s bitter-sweet two-page ‘Treasure Island Days’ (first published in 1978), telling the story of 1950s Treasure Island games with his brothers, one of whom (Maxon Crumb) adds a brief memoir (‘The Crumb Brothers on Treasure island’) in which he praises Stevenson’s language as a stimulus to their imagination.]
[Tooks’ ‘Bottle Imp’ updates S’s story to the present-day Pacific in an unconventional artistic style (free use of the page, absence of any sort of strip grid, captions out of frames and even direct speech not always enclosed in balloons). He uses only Stevenson’s unaltered text for dialogue and captions but sets the story in the modern Pacific: Keawe appears in a Hawaiian shirt, shorts and sandals, a camera round his neck, pulling a trolley, happy to be in San Francisco. The juxtaposition of text and images creates interesting situations, as on p. 118 where the caption says ‘Keawe was in the ship’s forecastle…’ and the picture shows him on a plane, or similarly (p.123) when he sees Kokua for the first time and stops his open convertible, accompanied by the caption from Stevenson “Now Keawe had no sooner seen her than he drew rein”. The dialogue that follows with the visually-represented gestures and expressions make us understand Stevenson’s words more clearly as an amusingly-observed chatting-up routine.
(Sara Rizzo)]

Pratt, Hugo (art) & Carlo Chendi (?) (script) (1967). Il ragazzo rapito [Kidnapped]. Published in Corriere dei piccoli, 1967 (Nos. 29-40). Reisssued 1997 with additional material by Alberto Becattini. Genova: Le Mani (Comics)/Microart's Edizioni. [omits Shuan's murder, hiding on the rocks, jumping across the river, Cluny's nest, the lass who ferries them across the Firth, entering the bank; the David and Alan relationship brought out well; Alan is attractive and boastful, and several times declares himself "Scottish rebel"; the 1997 edition attributes the script to Chendi, but it is attributed to Mino Milani by,,,]

Sarda, Bruno (script) & Francesco Bargadà Studio (art) (1994). ‘La freccia pera’. Topolino No. 2036 (A & B; 6 dic. 1994), published in two parts (26 pp. and 28 pp.), 3 strips per page.

[Parody of The Black Arrow (with Paperino (Donald Duck) as Dick and Paperina (Daisy Duck) as Joanna). The Wars of the Roses are transformed into a dispute between two local noble families: Paperyork and Duckester, headed respectively by Dick and Joanna’s ambitious uncles. The outlaws in the Tunstall Forest become boys that declare what adults cannot see, that war is absurd, and show this by adopting a ridicolous weapon: pear arrows (arrows with a pear instead of a point: so ‘freccia nera’, black arrow, become ‘freccia pera’, pear arrow…).

In the forest Dick meets John (Joanna in disguise). In the end Dick marries Joanna and the contention between the two families will be interrupted for a while.]

Tiziano Sclavi (script), Luigi Piccatto (art) (1993). Il diavolo nella bottiglia [The Bottle Imp]’. Milano: Sergio Bonelli (Dylan Dog, almanacco della paura 3.1).
[This version is scripted by Sclavi, a master in mythical contaminations, intertextualities, mirrorings and interweavings. The myth of an imprisoned spirit that offers his supernatural faculties to his deliverer the bottle imp can be traced to the 8th-century Arabian Nights story and is then found in medieval and modern European stories (cf. Swearingen 1980: 144, 146). In Sclavi the early story of the bottle, set in the middle-east during the Crusades, occupies pp 1-11 and it is only on p. 12 that we discover it is being read by a rabbi to the paranormal investigator Dylan Dog as a prelude to revealing his premonition that the bottle and its imp has returned.

A young woman buys the bottle in an antique shop, the only sale in this version—the real element that moves the story are mysterious deaths associated with the bottle (which the victims bring on themselves by their own unguarded wishes) and Dylan Dog’s investigation of them after the woman goes to him for help. (However, Sclavi does cleverly work in two other elements of Stevenson’s story: the value of difference currencies and the return of the bottle to its former owner). Sclavi maintains the happy end: Dylan Dog’s client, who has fallen in love with him, saves him by using her last wish, as Keawe saves Kokua. (Sara Rizzo)]   

Sciotti, Antonio (1976). La freccia nera [The Black Arrow]. Ciampino : Fratelli spada (I quaderni del fumetto). 82 pp.

Watkins, Dudley D. (1948). The Story of Kidnapped Told in Pictures. Dundee/London: D. C. Thomson & Co., John Leng & Co. [Previously serialized in D.C. Thomson’s People’s Journal]

[Watkins [1907-1969] also illustrated The Story of Treasure Island Told in Pictures (1950), and The Story of Catriona Told in Pictures (19**). Though he was an artist with great experience in comic strips (he drew The Broons and Oor Wullie in the Sunday Post supplement from 1936 to his death in 1969 and front-page strips in The Topper (1953-1990) and The Beezer  (1956-)), these adaptations had blocks of text alternating with pictures, halfway between a comic book and a picture book.

As a boy, the sculptor Sandy Stoddart (born 1959) was given a copy of Kidnapped Told in Pictures and found the illustrations ‘dramatic, rich in detail and accuracy and drawn with masterly draughtsmanship’ (Ian Nimmo ‘A Monumental Task’. The Scots Magazine May 2006: 464). Stoddart’s monumental statue of Alan Breck and David Balfour in Edinburgh (Corstorphine Road, corner of Ellersly Road) (2004, clearly draws inspiration from Watkins’ illustrated cover.]

Zanetto, Piero (script) & Alarico Gattia (art) (c1970). Il fanciullo rapito [Kidnapped]. Untraced publication. Dutch translation: De Ontvoering. Tournai: Casterman, 1978. French translation: L'enlèvement de David Balfour. In Femmes d'Aujourd'hui 11 juin 1980 - 5 mai 1981 (with added colour). A French strip David Balfour is also reported as having been published in le Journal de Tintin in 1952.

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